Anyone can grow a plant, but cultivating it for the highest and best result is one course that consists of many sciences.
Not every grower can follow a high education before breeding or is for a high education suitable.
These growers often rely on their own experiences or on the experiences of suppliers or others growers.
It therefore happens that there are many nonsense stories and even wrong books on the market.
We try to provide breeding info here in a clear simple language for every grower to understand how certain data from the breeding should be and why it should be.
Experience shows that if people know why something must be, or know exactly how a certain product works, they deal with it much better and will therefore always have a higher yield.
The pH of a medium is a very important, but also the most wrong factor. A plant transports the elements in water. It is therefore important that the elements can be connected to the water for optimum absorption by the plant. This depends on the pH value of the element. The best pH for each medium is therefore between 5.4 and 6.2.
For example, should the pH be too high, phosphorus, manganese and boron will be absorbed a lot less, resulting in long-term shortages of these elements and a burning of the leaf due to an abundance in the medium (because with every watering you stay but give and that accumulates).
taken up with the result of a quick shortage and then followed again with a burning of the leaves.
The pH must then be measured in the medium and not in the vessel or drainage water.
Measure pH. The best way to measure this in hydro or nft systems is by withdrawing some water from the medium with a syringe and then measuring it.
With soil and coco you measure with a special soil meter, but if you do not have
it, take a wet sample from the pot half an hour after watering and push the pH
By squeezing the soil releases some moisture with which the meter can do an exchange so that you can see the exact pH value of soil or coco.
The pH depends on the buffer quality of the medium and the water (number of bicarbonate). If the buffer is full or just empty, the pH changes very quickly up or down.
Many problems with a too low pH can easily be solved by using. applying a new buffer. AZ grass lime (no grain version) or Plagron lime mearl is very suitable for this, but beware not too much because then the pH rises too high again.
The relationship between light and dark (day and night) is what we call the photo period.
Flowering starts when the days get shorter. The growing and flowering of plants influenced
by a hormone (phytochrome). This hormone is produced day and night by the plant, but is
broken down during the day by light.
The hormone prevails as soon as the plant is in the dark 12 hours a day, and ensures that the plant will flower. The least amount of light during this dark period can cause it to bloom become seriously disturbed or even stops completely. That is why it is important to never enter a dark room, not even with a flashlight.
If you turn the light on at 18 o'clock then this hormone will never get the upper hand and remains the always plant at the vegative stage and therefore grow.
Light is also important for generating energy.
6H2O + 6CO2 -- Light à C6H12O6 + 6O2
Water + Carbon - Light à energy The more light, the more energy the plant can make if there is enough water and CO2.
A trick that some growers do is to light up in the last 2 weeks of the flowering period from 12 a.m. to 2 p.m. The plant then has enough flowering hormones in it to keep on flowering but get 2 hours a day longer light (and therefore more lumen) to take on energy (and 2 hours less dark to use energy).
The culture temperature is a very important determining factor. If the growing temperature is not correct, the plant will grow less or not at all.
It has been discovered in science that the best temperature around the leaf is 24 C ° - 26 C ° for each crop for maximum growth and flowering day and night.
During the day the plant makes energy to grow (assimilation) and at night the plant uses energy to grow (breathing).
The art of growing is to ensure that the plant makes as much energy as possible during the day and uses as little energy as possible at night.
We can stimulate this during the day by adding a little more CO2 and lumen (light) and stimulating the evaporation under the leaves (in adult plants) by using. air circulation. Be careful of course for too high evaporation.
The biggest growth is where the? hole? between Assimilation and breathing is the greatest. However, if it were 27 C during the day, to get the same optimum growth at night, the difference could be brought down from 3 C to 21 C. However, the temperature should never fall below 20 ° C, because then Phosphorus will be difficult to transport.
EC stands for Electric Conductivy (mS / liter) and with that we measure the amount of (usable and unusable) salts in water. The EC meter simply measures the amount of electrical resistance and that also explains why a medium like earth? Wet? must be if one measures it.
An EC meter measures a total sum of all food salts. An EC of 0.1 / 100L from one brand of nutrition therefore does not have to have the same nutritional value as an EC of 0.1 / 100L of the other brand.
Most cheaper plant foods contain many elements such as chloride, cadmium and other dirt. The EC meter also measures these salts.
Growers who grow their crops by weight also try to get the plant to absorb as many salts (building materials) as possible for a heavier end result.
These salts must be available and absorbable and preferably balanced in such a way that it stimulates each other to be absorbed.
The best way to measure this in hydro or nft systems is by withdrawing some water from the medium with a syringe and then measuring it. For soil or coco, it is best to mix the mediums lightly with distilled water in a cup and measure after soaking. It is also possible with normal water, but is of course less accurate.
However, for the build-up of Calcium and Protein in the plant cells, Boron is needed that bricklays these elements into the cell walls like a bricklayer. However, the pH of the medium must then be lower than 6.2 because otherwise Boron will not be absorbed or will be absorbed less.Link to concentrated liquid Calcium Magnesium plant food
All kinds of mistakes can be made during fertilization. The main error is the imbalance, by unilaterally adding an excess of certain ions (salts). The colloids (buffer) largely compensate for this error by recording many of these ions. These therefore disappear from the soil moisture, so that this is protected from an excess of salts. This excess would have an adverse effect on the cell fluids of the root hairs. The water would be withdrawn from the cell fluid by the greater concentration of ions outside the cell (osmosis equilibrium). This would continue until equilibrium of salts within and outside the cell was achieved. This water extraction is also called "burning of the plant or leaf".
Cheaper fertilizers contain many salts that are almost always only partially plant food. These salts, also known as "bulking agents", can cause a plant to burn earlier because they accumulate more and more in the medium. This medium is then usually also no longer suitable for a subsequent use and must therefore usually be renewed after one use. In addition to a lower harvest, cheaper fertilizers also cost a lot more labor and money with renewing the medium.
Humidity is perhaps the most underrated growth factor. We use relative humidity RL as a unit to measure this and to make adjustments. A dry air will accelerate the evaporation of the moisture from the leaf and a very moist air will delay this. A plant must always evaporate some water so that there is room in the plant for new water from the medium in which new nutrients are dissolved.
The plant is like a pump that works on solar energy. However, if the RL is too low, the plant will evaporate more than it can absorb and the plant will experience a growth disorder and may eventually dry out. If the humidity is extremely high, the plant will eventually grow little.
A balance in this is therefore very important. Small cuttings still have very little root and therefore cannot absorb much water. To make a cutting the hardest in the first 3 weeks you have to have an RL of about 80%. After that, up to and including approximately the 6th week, the optimum RL is 60%. In the 7th week and later we bring the RL down again but not lower than 40%. Below 40% the evaporation goes very fast, making it very difficult for the plant to get new moisture into the plant in time. The plant will close the stomata as a result of which the growth and flowering will stop. And downtime is always at the expense of the proceeds.
The humidity temperature is also important. There are systems that can easily blow cold water into the air. However, this cold moisture will naturally also slow down growth. It is best to use lukewarm water. Hobby growers who do not have a humidifier at their disposal can best spray the leaves regularly during the first 6 weeks.
In the air, the carbon occurs as carbon dioxide (CO2). It is brought into the air by breathing plants and animals and by decaying or burning organic substances. Botany teaches that sugar is built up from CO2 and water. From this, starch, fat, pulp and other substances can arise again. Protein also contains carbon. Thus it becomes understandable that the carbon sometimes makes up 50% of the plant's dry matter. The carbon is therefore a very important element for the structure of the plant. The air has 0.03% carbon dioxide. However, this low content is sufficient.
6H2O + 6CO2 - Light à C6H12O6 + 6O2
Simply put: Water + Carbon - Light à energy
The more CO2 the more energy the plant can make if there is enough water and light. Inside growers that create too much underpressure (large extraction system - small entrance) always get smaller plants due to the thin air (little CO2) than if they ensure better air pressure.
With the help of soil life, plants can build up a healthy and natural resistance to diseases and attacks.
We can distinguish bacteria into bad bacteria and good bacteria called the Rhizobacteria.
Rhizobacteria can again be divided into 3 groups.
1. The nitrogen binders bacteria.
2. The phosphate-releasing bacteria.
3. The hormone-producing bacteria.
Roots emit sugars and the sugars attract the bacteria. It is important that the Rhizobacteria prevail over the bad bacteria to prevent diseases and to make food available to the plant. The simplest way is to do this by simply administer bacteria every week. Another advantage that the Rhizobacteria have around a root point is that it can correct an incorrect pH to the correct pH on the spot.
A carrot can only fill a maximum of 10% of a pot, more is simply not possible. However, we can considerably increase the capacity of these carrots with carrot fungi (the so-called demycorrhiza or trichoderma fungi).
Because the fungal threads or hyphae grow many meters from the roots and are microscopically thin, they come to places where roots can never come. This makes the root system of plants up to hundreds of times larger than for plants that have to do without these fungal threads, all in exchange for a little sugar. The fungal threads also secrete a portion of this sugar that they do not use themselves around the threads, which in turn attracts the Rhizobacteria present. Because the Rhizobacteria are present around the fungal threads, which in turn promotes nutritional intake, the soil also receives the correct pH.
However, a bacterial preparation cannot be stored in liquid form for a long time because bacteria need sugars to survive. Without sugars, bacteria only live for 3 days. With sugars, a liquid preparation would expand in a short time (bacteria divide) and a bottle may even explode. When the sugars run out, the bacteria die. Hence a liquid bacteria or enzyme product is rarely encountered in gardens and agriculture (or it is fake).